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Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Get Access Comparison of Mesopotamia and the Indus Civilization Essay Sample Mesopotamia and Harappan societies have long been compared throughout the history of archaeology.
In recent use, it covers a broader area referring to most of what is now Iraq. Parts of Mesopotamia were not inhabited at all until approximately BC when plants and animals were domesticated, bringing about an agricultural revolution.
This allowed nomads and cave dwellers to become farmers and herders.
The Indus civilization is often referred to as Harappan civilization from one of the major sights called Harappa. Smaller groups lived in the area before this time, but it is around BC when the typical Indus cities took place. These two territories had many things in common, but also differed in some fundamental ways.
The economies of both will be analyzed from information available to date, as well as the forms of government and rule that each employed. Next, the social structure of Mesopotamia and the Indus civiliation will be compared, focussing on social stratification and employment.
Finally, I will discuss the architecture of these two ancient sights and the innovations created or similar materials used.
The domestication of animals, painting of pottery, and most importantly agriculture spread to Greece from Mesopotamia, showing the great influence it had on surrounding areas. This agriculture was being jeopardized from the progressive salinization of the soil, and the weakening of the dikes.
This necessitated constant surveillance employed by the temple and the palace. We know that there were three kinds of trade going on in Mesopotamia, one being inner city trade. The second kind was a carrying trade between foreign cities and trading outposts.
The last was the export of industrial goods to sights such as Al Mina at the mouth of the Orontes River in Syria. Balme and Lawall Items that were exported include textiles made by serfs, a term I will explain later, and the import of metal, stone, lumber, spices and perfumes.
Real estate was also being bought and sold, and tax collectors gathered taxes for the temple offices. This proved to be a problem at one point when it was said that many people were in jail for debt. By the old Babylonian period, however, there was a large population of well-off free citizens who were buying and selling private land, and had slaves to work it.
By this time, the temples had lost their power, while the royal palaces gained it. The economy of the Indus civilization was similar to Mesopotamia in that both had an agriculture based on irrigation and fertility by silt bearing floods.
Their cereal crops were also similar, the two main ones being wheat and barley. Trade was a large part of this civilization, but they were not as dependent on trade as Mesopotamia was.
They traded with their neighbours to the West, Hawkes Trade may have been in the hands of private merchants, for there is evidence for caravan routes. Part of every farmers crop was paid into the granary. These granaries were massive for the time, and are said to be the equivalent of a state bank or treasury.
The level of grain present would have represented the level of public credit. In Mesopotamia there were state and temple grain stores, but because of the size and architectural importance of those at the Indus sights, they are believed to have a greater importance.
The regular planning of Indus towns and cities could only mean that each was built as a whole by an authority with absolute control Hawkes Because of the uniformity over such a large area, it is almost guarunteed that the entire Indus area was a unified state.
The two main sights were Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, and they were the commercial and administrative centers. It is unlikely that there were two equal rulers, however. The citadels suggest a combination of a combined military and religious power.
In Mesopotamia we have a clearer picture of the ruling powers which were both divine and royal. The Sumerians had a belief that men were created by gods to labour for them. The temple and its land belonged to the god Ningirsu and his wife Baba, and their family.
The land owning nobility included ruling princes and their families, leading priests, and palace officials. They had a system of payment which was similar to that of the Indus area, which was payment by rations. They had a predominantly free economy, which encluded land ownership by farmers and merchants.
In old Babylonian times a group or council of elders were led by a town or a precinct mayor.Outline of History; Prehistory — Prehistory, the rise of civilization, and the ancient Middle East to c B.C.E. Prehistory to c BCE — Unit 1: Prehistory and the rise of Civilization to c B.C.E..
FC1 — Biological, Cultural, and Technological Evolution in History; FC2 — A Possible Scenario of Human Evolution; FC3 — A Possible Scenario for the Evolution of the Family and.
Stereotypes of South Asians are broadly believed impressions about individuals of South Asian origin that are often inconsistent with reality.
While the impressions are wrongly presumed to be universally true for all people of South Asian origin, these stereotypes adversely affect the South Asians as well as the acculturation process..
With 20th century immigration of South Asians around the. Government in Indus was a basis of religion and trade took place in the civilization. Government in Mesopotamia was a combination of monarchy and democracy and . CHAPTER I. THE BATTLE OF MARATHON Explanatory Remarks on some of the circumstances of the Battle of Marathon.
Synopsis of Events between the Battle of Marathon, B.C.
, and the Defeat of the Athenians at Syracuse, B.C. The economy of the Indus civilization was similar to Mesopotamia in that both had an agriculture based on irrigation and fertility by silt bearing floods.
Cereal crops were also similar, the two main ones being wheat and barley/5(1).
Back to issue 2. International Socialist Review Issue 2, Fall Engels and the Origin of Women's Oppression. by Sharon Smith Sharon Smith is a regular columnist for Socialist Worker and the author of a forthcoming book on Marxism and women’s liberation, to be published by the Center for Economic Research and Social Change.