Language English The author presents a rationale for adding psychology to the high school social studies curriculum. Also, changes within the environment of secondary schools which affect educators' willingness to offer psychology courses are identified.
The subject matter traditionally referred to as experimental psychology is found in the article onphysiological psychologyunder this heading, as well as in Drives; Experimental design; Forgetting; Learning; Motivation; Perception; Thinking.
Important and large-scale psychological theories are discussed in Field theory; Gestalttheory; Learning, articles onclassical conditioningandinstrumental learning; Learning theory; Psychoanalysis; Thinking, article Oncognitive organization and processes.
While some work is occasionally done with plant life, the field is typically limited to the behavior of animals. Its investigations lead to the specification of similarities and differences in behavior between species. The accomplishments of the field have not, thus far, completely matched expectations.
During the past century a vast amount of data on the behavior of infrahuman animals has been accumulated, but only a small fraction of this information has been used, or indeed proven useful, for comparative purposes. This has led some to deny the existence of comparative psychology as a distinct content area, and many more have used the title simply as the name for a method of study.
Since World War n, interest in comparative psychology has increased sharply. Some of the current trends in thinking and research that are beginning to revitalize comparative psychology will be presented in the sections below.
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For the purpose of this introduction, however, a few comments on some of the major characteristics of the field are in order. Such animals are frequently used in behavioral studies because it is impractical, for economic or humanitarian reasons, to use human subjects and because the use of animals may be necessary in order to achieve an acceptable level of experimental control.
There is nothing inherent in this practice to justify calling it comparative psychology. Such studies typically have as their objective the analysis of a particular behavioral process, the animal subject being nothing more than a convenient vehicle for that behavior.
The assumption implicit in this procedure is that the principles of behavior found in a particular species are relevant for all animals. This assumption is tempered somewhat by the circumstances that mammals are commonly used in such studies and that generalizations are usually made only to other mammals.
Nevertheless, the assumption remains, even though it is this very assumption that comparative psychology is supposed to test.
The point is, then, that some of what has been called comparative psychology is not only not comparative psychology but, in addition, assumes the validity of the evolutionary hypothesis on which the rationale for a comparative psychology is based.
In spite of the fact that man may be looked upon as just another species in the study of the evolution of behavior, he has not often been viewed in that way. Instead, comparative psychology has concentrated on the goal of achieving a better understanding of man through the study of the behavior of lower animals.
For example, in classical zoological work concerned with the phylogenetic development of structure and function, comparisons are typically made between species within a genus.
Except in the growing field of behavior genetics, little behavioral work has been done within genera and interspecific comparisons are usually made only across broad taxonomic groups—for example, a species of fish is compared with an amphibian, a reptile, or a mammal.
He justifies this approach by pointing out that his major interest is in the causal analysis of behavior and only secondarily in the origins of behavior.
Most of his data are relevant only to the former question. This approach is thus quite different from that of the ethologist, whose interest extends beyond causal analysis to include a primary concern with the evolutionary origins and adaptive significance of behavior.
In ethology intrageneric comparisons have been used successfully in the identification and study of homologous behavior patterns. This practice developed out of a reaction against the anecdotal nature of much of the data collected during the latter half of the nineteenth century.
These attempts to put behavior in a test tube, and to achieve rigorous experimental control, have been successful in producing reliable data and in reducing the teleological interpretations made by many early investigators.
It was not until this latter belief was challenged by the Darwinian theory of evolution that the seeds were sown for the development of contemporary comparative psychology.An introduction to the history, theory, and research of the positive psychology field with special emphasis placed on how it is similar and how it differs from other modern psychological theories.
Students will consider contemporary ideas on well-being, supportive relationships, positive experiences, and individual strengths and values. The Department of Educational Psychology offers undergraduate courses in human development and learning, measurement, research, evaluation and statistics, school psychology, school counseling, and community counseling.
Multicultural psychology is a major influence in contemporary psychology and includes such broad topic areas as racial identity development, acculturation, prejudice and stereotyping, and multicultural competence.
The course is designed to develop an awareness and understanding of the impact of these factors on multicultural assessments, cross-cultural consultation, and . Psychology is the study of the human mind, it is very complex and it is the source of all thoughts and behaviors.
Psychologists study the cognitive, emotional, and social processes by observing, interpreting, and recording how individuals relate to one another and their environments. Rationale for and Introduction of the Competencies for Counseling Psychology The Benchmark Competencies for Professional Psychology (APA Education Directorate, ; Fouad et al., ) are well developed and broadly relevant for Relationships, Individual and Cultural Diversity, Professional Values and Attitudes, Reflective Practice.