The logarithm to base b is the function that takes any positive number x as input and returns the exponent to which the base b must be raised to obtain x.

See Article History Logarithm, the exponent or power to which a base must be raised to yield a given number.

Logarithms of the latter sort that is, logarithms with base 10 are called commonor Briggsian, logarithms and are written simply log n. Invented in the 17th century to speed up calculations, logarithms vastly reduced the time required for multiplying numbers with many digits.

They were basic in numerical work for more than years, until the perfection of mechanical calculating machines in the late 19th century and computers in the 20th century rendered them obsolete for large-scale computations.

Properties of logarithms Logarithms were quickly adopted by scientists because of various useful properties that simplified long, tedious calculations. Similarly, division problems are converted into subtraction problems with logarithms: This is not all; the calculation of powers and roots can be simplified with the use of logarithms.

Logarithms can also be converted between any positive bases except that 1 cannot be used as the base since all of its powers are equal to 1as shown in the table of logarithmic laws. Only logarithms for numbers between 0 and 10 were typically included in logarithm tables.

To obtain the logarithm of some number outside of this range, the number was first written in scientific notation as the product of its significant digits and its exponential power—for example, would be written as 3. Then the logarithm of the significant digits—a decimal fraction between 0 and 1, known as the mantissa—would be found in a table.

For example, to find the logarithm ofone would look up log 3. In the example of a number with a negative exponent, such as 0.

History of logarithms The invention of logarithms was foreshadowed by the comparison of arithmetic and geometric sequences. Note that a geometric sequence can be written in terms of its common ratio; for the example geometric sequence given above: Thus, multiplication is transformed into addition.

The original comparison between the two series, however, was not based on any explicit use of the exponential notation; this was a later development. The Scottish mathematician John Napier published his discovery of logarithms in His purpose was to assist in the multiplication of quantities that were then called sines.

The whole sine was the value of the side of a right-angled triangle with a large hypotenuse. His definition was given in terms of relative rates.

The logarithme, therefore, of any sine is a number very neerely expressing the line which increased equally in the meene time whiles the line of the whole sine decreased proportionally into that sine, both motions being equal timed and the beginning equally shift.

In cooperation with the English mathematician Henry BriggsNapier adjusted his logarithm into its modern form.Purplemath. You have learned various rules for manipulating and simplifying expressions with exponents, such as the rule that says that x 3 × x 5 equals x 8 because you can add the exponents.

There are similar rules for logarithms. Properties of Logarithms log 2 8 x = log 2(8) log 2(x) Quotient Rule = 3 log 2(x) Since 23 = 8 = log 2(x) + 3 leslutinsduphoenix.com the expression log 10x2, we have a power (the x2) and a leslutinsduphoenix.com order to use the Product Rule, the entire quantity inside the logarithm must be raised to the same exponent.

Sum and Differences Word Problems - 4 Digits This estimation worksheet will produce 4 digit sums and/or differences word problems for the students to solve. You can select sum, difference or a mixture of both types of problems.

The Logarithm Laws. by M. Bourne. as the sum of 2 logarithms. Answer. Using the first law given above, our answer is `log 7x = log 7 + log x` Note 1: This has the same meaning as `10^7 xx 10^x = 10^(7+x)` Express as a multiple of logarithms: log x 5.

Answer. Using the third logarithm law, we have. Logarithms in one base can be changed to logarithms in any other base using a ‘change of base formula’ which basically just uses a proportionality constant.

There is also a change of base formula that can be applied to a relationship expressed in exponential form. Software for math teachers that creates exactly the worksheets you need in a matter of minutes.

Try for free. Available for Pre-Algebra, Algebra 1, Geometry, Algebra 2, Precalculus, and Calculus.

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How to Write a logarithm as a sum or difference of logarithms « Math :: WonderHowTo