It was hypothesized that the attitude predictiveness of self-congruity and functional congruity is moderate by brand conspicuousness, uniqueness, differentiation, and involvement. A study was conducted involving eight different product categories and subjects. The overall pattern of results provided some support for the moderating effects of conspicuousness, uniqueness, involvement, and differentiation on attitude predictiveness of self-congruity and functional congruity. The results provided support for these expectations.
Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. The Application of Self-Congruity Theory in Tourism Essay Sample ABSTRACT This article will attempt to provide a theoretical framework of the development of the self-congruent theory utilized in tourism by reviewing relevant literatures, highlighting landmark opinions and comparing the constructive models regarding pertinent issues, including destination image, destination branding, tourist destination choice, consumer needs, motivation, tourist segmentation etc.
This article attempts to build a comprehensive model focusing on the vital role of self-congruity in the process of destination choice in a broad societal and cultural context.
Self-congruity, destination image, destination branding, tourist destination choice, self-image, self-concept 1. In current society, there exists fierce competition in the tourism industry.
To be more specific, excessive destinations attempt to attract more tourists by adopting various marketing methods. In that case, the study of tourist behavior during the destination choosing process is becoming increasingly important.
This article mainly conducts a research in consumer from the perspective of self-concept in order to help to explain the psychological underpinnings of travel behavior. Indeed, consumer research has had a long tradition of addressing how self-concept is used as a cognitive referent in evaluating symbolic cues.
Identification of concepts 2. Many other traditional definitions of the self-concept focus on a unitary self e. One part of self-concept is the notion of self-esteem, or the assessments of self-worth and self-respect Rosenberg Another part of self-concept is comprised of self-image, or the set of attributes used by people to describe what they are like Kimmel and Tissier-Desbordes ; Sirgy, Grewal, Manglebrug, Park, Chon, Claiborne, Johar, and Berkman Some researchers propose that the destination environmental cues attributes to the formation of destination image.
Destination atmospheric cues, such as the natural landscape, historic interests, hotel design, and tourism infrastructure, form the overall context within which tourists make travel and patronage decisions and are likely to have a significant impact on destination image Gartner This connection reflects the importance of a match between the needs and self-image of the tourist and their perceptionof the brand personality of the destination.
The congruity of self-concept with product or brand mental representation refers to the match between those two images and plays an important role in consumer behavior since it constitutes a basic mechanism on which individuals base their brand preferences.
Sirgy stresses that the need for individual reassurance from others is one of the basic principles of self-concept that drive consumers.
Many have conducted research on the congruity of self-concept and brand symbols. Analyzing these from a multi-faceted perspective of self-concept, Sirgy concludes that consumers tend to prefer or purchase products that are consistent with their real and ideal self-concepts, 3.
Identification of measuring methods Malhotra developed a scale to measure self and product concepts, comprised of 15 semantic differential items which in effect measure personality characteristics.
Euclidean distances between the profile of the products and the self-concepts were correlated with preference rankings to determine whether respondents had greater preference for products more congruent with their self concepts Malhotra, Then, a discrepancy or ratio score with each image dimension is mathematically computed, and the discrepancy scores are summed across all dimensions.
Indeed, most studies in consumer self-concept research in relation to consumer goods and services have measured self-congruity using some kind of mathematical discrepancy index between consumer self-concept and the product-user image Claiborne and Sirgy ; Sirgy ,a; Sirgy et al.
Sirgy argued that this method does not cue participantsto a specific image category or dimension. The method cues participants to conjure up their own image of the destination visitor. Then, the method guides them to indicate their global perception of degree of match or mismatch between howthey see themselves self-image and the destination patron image.
In other words, this measurement procedure captures self-congruity directly not by measuring destination visitor image and self-image separately and globally not by asking participants to indicate their perception of congruity with predetermined images.
As such, the new method assumes that self-image congruence is processed holistically or globally, not analytically or piecemeal as the traditional method assumed.
In comparing the predictive validity of the new method with that of the traditional method, the new method was found to be more predictive of various consumer behaviors and attitudes across six different studies.
Review of self-congruity frameworks 4. In this situation ,the individual might be motivated to purchase the product but the satisfaction level would be moderate. The satisfaction level would be the lowest because the purchase of the product serves no function to the maintenance of either the self-esteem of self-consistency motives.
Goldsmith The research applies innovativeness and self-reference theory to explore the manifestation of self-congruity in destination choice. The research finds that tourism innovators have a distinctly unique self-image when compared to late adopters and suggests means that tourism marketers of innovative products can use to target these important potential customers.
This paper has reported self-image characteristics related to Singaporean travel innovators. These specific characteristics, however, may or may not hold consistent in other locales and it is suggested that tourism marketers invest the effort necessary to understand how innovators within their target markets see themselves.This notion has become known as self-congruity theory and is based on the assumption that consumers prefer brands they associate with a set of personality traits congruent with their own (Malhotra, ; Sirgy, ).
Full-Text Paper (PDF): Brand personality of tourist destinations: An application of self-congruity theory.
This paper investigates (1) if, and to what extent, self-congruity theory is applicable in tourism, (2) to what extent travel and person characteristics explain the degree of self-congruity, and (3) how the operationalization of self-congruity affects the conclusions about whether self-congruity holds in tourism.
Results derived from a large-scale study of Swiss travelers indicate that. Strengths and Weaknesses of the Congruity Theory Glossary References Self-test Figure 1 Osgood and Tannenbaum's Congruity Theory One nice feature of Osgood and Tannenbaum’s () Congruity Theory is that it is explicitly oriented to communication and persuasion.
Their refinement of Heider treated the Other person (O) as a message Source. Self-congruity theory postulates that consumers choose products or brands that have a user image that is consistent with their own self-image or self-concept (Sirgy, Sirgy, M.
J. (). Self-congruity: Toward a theory of personality and cybernetics. The study also supports the self-congruity theory within the context of tourism destinations, indicating that both actual congruity and ideal congruity have a positive impact on behavioral intentions.