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History[ edit ] In the Paleolithicwild horses formed an important source of food. In many parts of Europe, the consumption of horse meat continued throughout the Middle Ages until modern times, despite a papal ban of horse meat in Some horses became feral and were hunted by the indigenous Pehuenche people of what is now Chile and Argentina.
The meat was, and still is, preserved by being sun-dried in the high Andes into a product known as charqui. France dates its taste for horse meat to the Revolution. With the fall of the aristocracy, its auxiliaries had to find new means of subsistence.
Just as hairdressers and tailors set themselves up to serve commoners, the horses maintained by aristocracy as a sign of prestige ended up alleviating the hunger of lower classes.
At the siege of Alexandriathe meat of young Arab horses relieved an epidemic of scurvy.
At Aspern-Esslingcut off from the supply lines, the cavalry used the breastplates of fallen cuirassiers as cooking pans and gunpowder as seasoning, and thus founded a tradition that carried on until at least the Waterloo campaign.
Horse meat gained widespread acceptance in French cuisine during the later years of the Second French Empire. Though there were large numbers of horses in Paris estimates suggested between 65, and 70, were butchered and eaten during the siege the supplies were ultimately limited.
Many Parisians gained a taste for horse meat during the siege, and after the war ended, horse meat remained popular. Likewise, in other places and times of siege or starvation, horses are viewed as a food source of last resort.
Despite the general Anglophone taboo, horse and donkey meat was eaten in Britain, especially in Yorkshireuntil the s,  and in times of postwar food shortage surged in popularity in the United States  and was considered for use in hospitals.
It is also taboo in Brazil, Israel, and among the Romani people and Jewish people the world over. Horse meat is not generally eaten in Spain, except in the north, although the country exports horses both live animals and slaughtered meat for the French and Italian markets.
Horse meat is consumed in some North American and Latin American countries, and is illegal in some countries.
The consumption of horse meat has been common in Central Asia societies, past or present, due to the abundance of steppes suitable for raising horses. In North Africa, horse meat has been occasionally consumed, but almost exclusively by the Christian Copts and the Hanafi Sunnis a common form of Islam in Central Asia and Turkeybut has never been eaten in the Maghreb.
In the eighth century, Popes Gregory III and Zachary instructed Saint Bonifacemissionary to the Germans, to forbid the eating of horse meat to those he converted, due to its association with Germanic pagan ceremonies.
The culturally close people of Sweden still have an ambivalent attitude to horse meat, said to stem from this time. Henry Mayhew describes the difference in the acceptability and use of the horse carcass in London and Paris in London Labour and the London Poor Even the hunting of wild horses for meat continued in the area of Westphalia.
Londoners also suspected that horse meat was finding its way into sausages and that offal sold as that of oxen was in fact equine.
While no taboo on eating horse meat exists per se, it is generally considered by ethnic Russians to be a low-quality meat with poor taste, and it is rarely found in stores. It is popular among such peoples as TatarsYakutsKyrgyzsand Kazakhs. In some countries, the effects of this prohibition by the Roman Catholic Church have lingered, and horse meat prejudices have progressed from taboosto avoidance, to abhorrence.
According to the anthropologist Marvin Harris some cultures class horse meat as taboo because the horse converts grass into meat less efficiently than ruminants. Totemistic taboo is also a possible reason for refusal to eat horse meat as an everyday food, but did not necessarily preclude ritual slaughter and consumption.
Roman sources state that the goddess Epona was widely worshipped in Gaul and southern Britain. Epona, a triple-aspect goddess, was the protectress of the horse and horse keepers, and horses were sacrificed to her;  she was paralleled by the Irish Macha and Welsh Rhiannon.
In The White GoddessRobert Graves argued that the taboo among Britons and their descendants was due to worship of Epona, and even earlier rites. Horses were slaughtered as a sacrifice to the gods, and the meat was eaten by the people taking part in the religious feasts.
A reluctance to eat horse meat is still common in these countries even today. In countries with a less industrialized food production system, horses and other animals are slaughtered individually outdoors as needed, in the village where they will be consumed, or near to it.
Major Horse meat Production Countries,  [ needs update ] Country.This book is garbage and is a complete disrespect to those who know the true story and uniqueness of Hero Street USA. For starters, there are 8 soldiers that have been memorialized on this block with numerous plaques, awards, brochures, literature, documentaries, and The Hero Street Monument itself.
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Religious freedom is a constitutional guarantee, but secular education and a complete separation between religion and politic affairs is mandatory. Roberto Cueva del Río was born in in the city of Puebla, Mexico.
His family moved to Mexico City when he was a child and there, at age 15, he became an illustrator at the newspaper Excelsior.